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Shown is an officers helmet, basic pattern for Grenadier Regiments 1-12, except for
G.R. 1,4,7 and 9, which wore helmets with the Grenadier eagle, old or new pattern and with battle honours etc. The old pattern eagle shown is pre 1913.
The new pattern eagle was introduced gradually for all regiments between 1897 and 1913. Shown is the old pattern heraldic eagle with an oval FWR shield on the breast. The helmet is presumably from Grenadier-Regiment König Friedrich I. (4. Ostpreussisches) No.5, based in Danzig, as it came complete with cloth cover and red regimental number. The eagle displays a very fine quality fire-gilding. Inside is the normal officers type lining in leather and ribbed silk, the front peak is lined in green leather, the rear peak in red leather, which was standard for officer helmets. This example could be dated as around 1897-1910, probably the latter, as the spike is relatively tall.

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Correction: Title of Regiment should read: Grenadier-Regt. König Friedrich I. (4.Ostpreussisches) No.5 - based in Danzig. Friedrich I was the first King of Prussia since it's establishment in 1701.

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Here is an update to the Baden helmet listed earlier. I have repainted the Baden Cockade to a more realistic look. Not perfect, but displays much better now.  

Shown is a fieldgrey fitted pickelhaube for Hessian troops. The helmet is of a very small size, 53/54. All fittings have the original greymetal finish. The chinstrap is of original brown leather and v

I was of the impression that Baden cockades were stamped brass, not painted with brass-colored paint. Perhaps I am mistaken? There was a  seller in France recently selling brass cockade blanks that

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Shown is an other ranks helmet M.1897 for Prussian line Grenadier Regiments 1-12 with exception of G.R.1,4,7,8 and 9 with officer pattern cockades of the flatter variety, as worn by Vizefeldwebel and Feldwebel. These cockades have a very flat silvered ring. The helmet is in peacetime quality, with a fire-gilded Grenadier Eagle of the pattern gradually introduced in 1897, similar to the guards eagle, but without the white metal star, there are also other small differences to the guards eagle, being the sceptre and the arrangement of the scroll. The spike has a screw fitting for removal and fitting of a black horsehair plume for parades, for which also chinscales would be fitted. I had to carefully re-stitch the rear peak, which was almost completely adrift. The helmet is in otherwise untouched condition throughout, with dust from dry storage and is clearly stamped within the rear peak with B.A.I = Bekleidungsamt I in Königsberg and G.R.3 for Grenadier-Regt.3, also in Königsberg, and inside the crown is the date 1915. This regiment was originally raised in 1685 and was among the few of the very old or Altpreussische Regimenter to survive the defeat and disarmament/disbandment of 1806/7 at the hands of Napoleon. The full title of the regiment was Grenadier-Regiment König Friedrich Wilhelm I (1.Ostpreussisches) No.3 and was named in honour of the king of that name (1714-1740), who had been a great reformer of the military and state, but was very much of a house tyrant in the eyes of the court and of his family, but however, kept the peace in Europe, as Prussia was involved in no wars during his reign, and he greatly contributed to Prussias renown in Europe, feared, but respected.
The helmet itself can be considered rare, as this is a garrison, which was completely destroyed at the end of WW2 and the territory of East Prussia disappeared from the map for ever, now being a Russian enclave with an entriely Russian population. This example I managed to obtain at an auction in Munich in November 1988, just before the fall of the Iron Curtain. At the time, a lot of antiques were being confiscated by the communist states and being sold off to the West for badly needed currency.

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Grenadier eagle with original fire-gilding. The left side of the peak has some slight damage. Brown leather chinstrap with much original finish , typical war issue.

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Prussian cockade for senior NCO, either Vizefeldwebel or Feldwebel

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Reichskokarde for senior NCO, either Vizefeldwebel or Feldwebel

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The peak to the rear had to be re-stitched on both sides

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Kammerstempel: G.R.3 = Grenadier-Regiment 3

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Kammerstempel: B.A.I = Bekleidungsamt I (Königsberg), there is also an almost illegible maker's stamp inside the crown and date 1915

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Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Helmet for an officer of I. or III. Bataillon, Mecklenburgisches Grenadier Regiment-89 or Füsilier-Regiment 90
Early wartime production, the gilding of the chinscales and rosettes are of a poorer quality than prewar examples. The front peak is lined in thin green cotton, the rear peak with thin red cotton, typical of this period. The helmet shows some wear, age and slight damage here and there as can be expected from the period. The leather sweat band is of good quality brown leather, the brown ribbed silk upper liner shows light wear. The cockade is in the Mecklenburg colours, red-gold-blue with the original colouring, the Mecklenburg shield with crown on a golden sunburst shows also slight rubbing to the highpoints. Curios is the fluted spike, worn otherwise only by officers of 1st Ft.Guards, Generals, and in Bavaria.

This item was depicted in several books by Jan Kube. 

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Helmet from Badisches Feld-Artillerie-Regiment Grossherzog von Baden No.14
Helmet is in good peacetime quality issue with cockades for a senior nco. The inner peak has a regimental stamp. Inside of shell is dated 1912. At the front inside is a printed cloth label of the wearer: Vizewachtmeister Kurz, 1./F.A.R.Großherzog Nr.14. Vizewachtmeister and Wachtmeister were the equivalent ranks of Vizefeldwebel or Feldwebel for artillery and cavalry. The helmet is in very good condition, with very little wear. Purchased from the well known collector, T.N.G. Stubbs in Southern England in 1970. 

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Prussian Garde Infantry helmet

This is a 1915 dated pickelhaube of the Prussian Guards Regiments. The helmet is only marked 1915 and the inner rear peak has the usual stamp of K.B.A.G. being Kriegs-Bekleidungsamt der Garde. This helmet was nominally worn by Garde-Grenadier-Regts. 1-5 ,by Garde-zu-Fuss-Regts.. 2, 3 and 4 and by the Garde-Reserve-Regiments that were raised after mobilisation in August 1914. The spike, as always with guard regiments, has a screw fitting. This example has the wartme leather chinstrap for field use. This example is somewhat battered and somewhat misshapen, possibly field damage and later poor storage, has however, not suffered from dampness or dirt. With original Prussian and Reich cockades. This example was found in the early 1980s in Camden Passage Antiques Centre, London, probably originally brought back as a souvenir by a British soldier from the first half of WW1.

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This was the first pickelhaube I ever got. It was purchased for the proud sum of 4 pounds from the stately shop in Mayfair, London called "Regimental", owned jointly by Major Wilkinson-Latham and his two sons, Robert and Christopher. That was the 30th March 1967, just a few days after my 14th birthday, and a present from my father. I was told, it was one of at least 50 found in an old barn in Switzerland, most of them were Prussian fieldgrey, one Hesse, one Baden at least one officer, etc. The helmet was minus chinstrap and cockades and preserved under 50 years of dust. I later managed to find an original chinstrap and made do with two copy cockades. "Regimental" told me, the best substance for cleaning up was Meltonian Patent Leather Cleaner in Black. This was a good restorer, and is now unfortunately discontinued and no longer available, and I havent found a suitable substitute till present. Leather should never be oiled, this will darken the leather and has more of a harmfull effect over the years. Saddle soap or a good clear wax is ultimately better.
The helmet has some quite clear stamping. Inside the skull is the date of 1917, size 54 (very small, but typical of the day) and the maker's stamp: Nordwestdeutsche Lederwaren, Offenbach a./M. The inner neck is stamped: Ersatz-Batl. Res.-Inf.-Regt.110 very interesting. Being a Prussian helmet, I always assumed this would have Prussian cockades. However, experience taught me that Reserve-Regiments of smaller states often had a Prussian line eagle and their own state cockade, one example being Anhalt, which Res.-Regt.93 wearing the Prussian line eagle with a green cockade of Anhalt. This helmet was from Baden, so therefore the Baden cockade would be probable. This unit was based in Neubreisach, which is now in France (Neuf-Brisach) Unfortunately, there is very little literature about Reserve-Regiments raised after 1914. So therefore a subject worth researching.

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An archive photo from 1993, still with copy cockades. Superb photo quality using a Yashica SLR camera and Kodak ASA 400 film

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Prussian line eagle in fieldgrey

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Now fitted with an orginal Prussian cockade

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Original Reichskokarde is still missing, brown leather chinstrap blackened

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Kammerstempel: Ersatz-Bataillon Res.-Inf.Regt.110 and a size stamp 54

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A further Size stamp 55 and maker's stamp inside the crown, dated 1917

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M.1915 Helmet of Prussian Jäger-zu-Pferde

Shown is a 1915 pattern grey metal fitted helmet of the Jäger-zu-Pferde Regiments. As with all helmets of Sept.1915 regulations, the spike was removable. This is quite an average helmet of its type, the blued finish is almost completely intact, the skull has a few minor dents. The large size cockades are original - metal helmets were always fitted with this type. The leather of the chinstrap has been collector replaced at some time, the greenish finish of the spike has also been renewed, otherwise completely unaltered. The blackened leather liner has become dry with the years, a fault common to most metal helmets. The front peak has remains of its orginal green finish, the rear peak is black lacquered, almost intact. Within the liner is the makers mark, an ink stamp of Weissenberger & Co., Cannstatt (near Stuttgart), a well known metal manufacturer at the time. This is quite unusual, as most metal helmets of this type were made by the well known Berlin manufacturers. The helmet is otherwise undated and no regimental markings. All trimming is greymetal finished iron. The front plate is the Dragoon Eagle, as also worn by the Jäger zu Pferde regiments. All in all, the helmet has seen relatively little wear, and most of these helmets landed in a depot at some time or another, as the steel helmet was introduced. The cavalry were the last troops to be issued with the steel helmet, as they were mainly no longer front line troops.

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Inside has no markings, apart from an ink stamp to the inside of the liner, draw string has been replaced by a thin blue and white cord, front peak has lost most of it's green finish, otherwise remainder with most black inside paintwork

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Helmet crown has a few small dents, slight rust speckling.

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Front peak has also some slight rust smears

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Reichscockade slightly chipped

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Some examples by Weissenberger have a maker's name plate inside, my example has not (internet photo)

 

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Shown is an other ranks helmet from Dragoner-Regt. Königin Olga von Württemberg (1.Württ.) No.25, based in Cannstatt near Stuttgart. The helmet is remarkably lightweight as with a private purchase type, but has a typical standard issue leather li'ner. The helmet has been somewhat restored. The chaincales have been replaced, but original, as also the state cockade, which is a collectors copy. The front plate is very finely frosted. The crossbase for the spike has seen some damage, but has been straighened out. The spike is removable, as this regiment wore white horsehair plumes for important occasions. The helmet has no regimental or maker's marks.

A Kartuschkasten, private purchase for other ranks and n.c.o. of Dragoner-Regiment 25, could also be for an officer.

Dragoner Rgt. 25 formed a joint brigade with Dragoner-Regt.26 and served mainly on the Western Front, in the latter part as dismounted infantry. During an incident at Bourlon Wood (near Cambrai) on 28th September 1918, several officers of the sister regiment, Dragoner 26, were captured by British troops and subsequently shot. No reason for this is apparent, and no enquiry has apparently been made into this. The officers were from a highly aristocratic background. This information can be seen in the "Ehrenrangliste des Ehemaligen Deutschen Heeres 1914-18", published in 1926 and in the regimental history.

It was stated, "In englischer Gefangenschaft erschossen..."

Their names are:

Rittmeister Karl von Neubronner (acting regtl. commander)

Leutnant von Rantzau

Leutnant von Sydow

Leutnant Eugen Graf von Schaesberg-Thannheim

The uniform of the regiment was a light blue tunic with white facings and swedish cuffs, white Gardelitzen with red centreline on collars and cuffs. Shoulder strap with red crowned monogram "O". Gold coloured buttons.
N.B.: This was the only regiment, which wore three different monograms! The white leather bandelier had a silver plate with a "W" under an Imperial Crown, with a silver chain and needle (Räumnadelbeschlag), which only decorative and served no practical purpose.

 

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Württemberg: Kavallerie-Degen 1889, parts in relic condition

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Left,  photo of the personal uniform of His Majesty the King of Württemberg as "Regimentschef", right, an other ranks' uniform.

Attached is a further photo showing officers of Dragoner Regt.26 in front of the barracks gate in Cannstatt amonsgt others, Alfred von Gültlingen, Karl von Neubronner (later acting cmdr.), Robert Duke of Württemberg, etc. Pre-WWI photo. (found under Deutsche Digittalbibliothek, Stuttgart)

24 Offiziere vor Kasernentor in Cannstatt, unter ihnen: Alfred von Gültlingen, Karl von Neubronner (beide Rittmeister) and Herzog Robert von Württemberg, Major, in Uniform, Mütze mit Säbel (Deutsche Digitalbibliothek) 

 

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Shown is an older helmet ca.1889, which has been reactivated for service at the outbreak of WWI. The front and rear peak have been renewed you can see the contrast between the skull inner and the peaks, which are of almost fresh tan leather. Helmets were supposed to have a service period of at least 6 years, and then they were used as replacement parts for others. Anything serviceable was repaired and restored. The emblem is the old type with screw threads, as is the rear spine without ventilation, the spike and base are of the new 1895 type. The rear peak has a stamp inside of Inf..Regt.180, which was the most recent regiment to be raised (1897) and was stationed in Tübingen and Gmünd. This unit belonged to the XIII, or Württemberg Army Corps. Both cockades (Württ. cockade, black with red ring) and the somewhat worn chinstrap are all orginal to the helmet, which is in very fresh condition. All fittings have a slight age patina. I was told, the helmet came from country people and was found in a farm building. This then turned up at a Hamburg flea market many years ago and went for a very modest price of 400 marks, that was long before the Euro came in.

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Shown is a fieldgrey fitted pickelhaube for Hessian troops. The helmet is of a very small size, 53/54. All fittings have the original greymetal finish. The chinstrap is of original brown leather and very worn. The Reichs cockade is original, the Hessian cockade is a very good collectors replacement, which I got at a Berlin Arms Fair about 14 years ago, this being of the correct pattern, entirely different from the usual cockades. This was blank, so I lacquered this in the correct colours, white with two red rings. The normal pattern spike shown is not the correct pattern, but has been with the helmet for many years. The correct pattern should be hexagonal, or six sided. As these spikes were removed, they often got lost! In fact I remember reading the memoirs of a German infantryman in WW1 many years ago. Before the assault, everyone had to remove the spike from the helmet and these were put in a large potato sack, which later got lost! That was not so good for behind the lines parades, and something makeshift had to be done. So therefore each man cut a raw potato to shape and placed it under the helmet cover. The higher ranking dignitary taking off the parade did not notice the swindle and all were content!
The helmet shown has a makers stamp inside, Nordwestdeutsche Lederwaren, Offenbach a./M., similar to another example shown. There are no regimental markings to the helmet, the rear peak has been blackened over inside, presumably not to give away information on the unit. Numbered shoulder straps were also often removed before frontline action. The helmet is in all, in very good condition, but leaves the impression that this one has seen action. There is also a cloth cover to match, an exact fit and with green numbers to the front of 116th Regiment. This regiment saw more than enough action on the Verdun front, there are documentary photos which show soldiers of this regiment (with numbered helmet covers and spikes removed) in the trenches in the woods facing the Verdun front.

A further photo shows soldiers of Inf.-Regt.116 in trenches on Verdun Front (Bois de Caux). Some are wearing steel helmets, others with the pickelhaube with cover and green numbers 116, the spikes of course, have been removed.

A helmet cover after September 1915, featuring a removable spike, no longer present, green regimental numbers original stitched on. There are reinforced curved side-slits for the chinstrap, iron hooks for fastening to helmet rim at front and rear. The cloth is a woven greygreen mixture of various colour fabrics to blend the desired colour. Very rare, and from a very old collection, that was auctioned at the end of the 1990s. This is an exact fit to helmet depicted.

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Shown is an older example of a Hessian helmet for Grossherzoglich Hessisches Infanterie-Regiment Kaiser Wilhelm II, No.116, based in Giessen/Hessen. Kaiser Wilhelm II. chose to be the regimental colonel in chief of this Hessian Regiment. The uniform looked quite distinguished with dark blue tunics, white metal buttons, red collars and facings, the shoulder straps and cuff patch were white, the former with the red monogram of Wilhelm with the Imperial Crown (one of the few regiments to wear this type of crown). The helmet could be fitted with a black horsehair plume for parades.


The Grand Duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt contributed following infantry regiments: 115, 116, 117, 118 and 168, and formed part of the XVIII. Army Corps. The last head of state was Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig of Hessen-Darmstadt.


This older example has been refurbished with side buttons M.91 and a brown leather wartime chistrap with bronzed iron fittings. The other fittings are of an older pattern, the plate is fitted with screw posts, both correct original cockades in orginal colours. The spike is removable to fit the horsehair plume. The spike itself is of the unique Hessian pattern, six sided and on a cross base. The front peak is rounded and not square. The back spine is not quite as per regulation, as in the Hessian regulatiions the back spine was to be fitted with two outward studs. The rear peak has a hardly legible stamp of R.116

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Depicted is a Prussian infantry helmet from around 1915. The fittings are mainly of peacetime yellow metal variety. The side posts are greymetal finished iron. The chinstrap has brass fittings, spike and line eagle are of yellow metal. Many examples had these fittings with a toned bronze finish to make the helmet less conspicuous. Helmets of this type were only worn for a brief period, and were basicly experimental, and mainly because of shortage of materials, leather stocks were becoming scarcer as the war progressed and could not be easily replaced. This type of helmet was not intended for front line duties and was not worn with a cover. This applied also to the other variations in felt and other Ersatz materials.

The helmet is of pressed steel and has about 95% of original fieldgrey finish, the liner is of standard leather on a reiinforced textile ring with internal fastening. The helmet itself shows no makers marks, just a handpainted white 27 inside the neckguard, presumably for Infantry Regt.27, which was based near Magdeburg (IV. Army Corps) Very good condition for age.

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Helmet for Baden Infantry Regiments in Ersatz material, known as a Filzhelm. Made during a period when leather stocks were in short demand. Body is made in one piece in greygreen felt, lightweight black leather liner. No markings to inside of helmet. The plate, side lugs, peak rim and spike are of peacetime quality yellow metal. This example was not fitted with a back spine.. The plate is the Baden Griffin with Fürst motto, the Reichs cockade and chinstrap both original replacements, the Baden cockade is a simple cast copy with the correct colours. The helmet was manufactured in 1914 - 1915 or possibly longer, and was intended for non-frontline units. Baden was a Grand Duchy, ruled by Friedrich II (Grossherzog) and the Baden contingent was the XIV. Army Corps centred in Karlsruhe. Baden held following infantry regiments: 109-114, 142, 169 and 170, apart from the Reserve Regiments raised after mobilisation.
Helmets of this construction were rather flimsy, and not many have survived to this day. Purchased in Londons Portobello Road in 1978

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This old model 1867/71 helmet was worn by 1st Foot Guards, Garde-Füsilier-Regt. and by the Garde-Pionier-Bataillon until more modern helmets were introduced in 1887. The Reichs cockade was not introduced until 1897 and only the Prussian cockade was worn under the right chinscale. The crown of the older helmets was higher, the peaks longer. The spike had a perlring around the base, the back spine had no ventilation slider. The flat yellow metal chinscales were worn with white metal rosettes fastened by iron screws (eiserne Schlitzschrauben) The guard eagle and other fittings are of white metal (Neusilber), the star was of white metal Argentan, a different form of alloy. As from the 12th November 1888 helmets of the First Foot Guards (1. Garde Regiment zu Fuss) were fitted with white metal chinscales.

The helmet depicted has no internal markings and has been worn over a longer period.

The Garde-Füsilier-Regt. was based in Berlin, the First Foot Guards in Potsdam and the Garde-Pionier-Btl. was in Spandau

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This is a standard helmet of the Prussian field artillery regiments. There is a date stamp in the crown of 1915, and the fittings have not been gilded. The helmet has the normal line eagle, the balltop has a perlring around the base, the chinscales are of the convex type always worn by mounted troops. In very good condition, as probably only worn for a short period before the introductiion of the steel helmet. The helmet has no further markings, apart from an erased stamp in the neckguard.

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This helmet is for a Reserve Officer of the Prussian Dragoner Regiments with yellow metal fittings, as worn before 1897, and only has the Prussian cockade on the right side. The golden dragoon pattern eagle has a gilded Reserve Cross on the breast and no scroll across the wings. The cross bears the motto: Mit Gott für König und Vaterland 1813, which was the date in which Reserve and Landwehr were first raised. The gilding on most of the fittings shows some wear and darkening, the gilt on the emblem is almost 100% This pattern of helmet was also worn by all Officers of the Provinzial Landwehr-Kavallerie units. The fact that the cross is gilt would make it theoreticly "Landsturm" - Landsturm Kavallerie.

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Shown is a helmet for Prussian Dragoner regiments with white metal fittings. The chinscales are, as always, of yellow metal, with white rosettes mounted with iron screws of the old pattern before 1894. Only the Prussian cockade was worn. The plate is the white metal dragoon pattern eagle, the spike with perlring on a crossbase, is removable, as all dragoon regiments wore a black horsehair plume for special occasions. The crown is slightly higher than on later models, and the helmet is of thick lacquered leather. Helmet fitings have some staining and verdigris from long storage. A printed linnen label in the crown bears the details of the last wearer: Einjährig-Freiwilliger Woge, 5. Eskadron that is of a one-year-volunteer of the 5th squadron, unfortunately without mention of the regiment.

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Helmet of a Prussian Officer of the Landwehr Infantry. The line eagle has no scroll, on the breast is the Landwehr Cross with the usual motto. The spike is of medium height, dating the helmet beween 1897 and before 1910. Both cockades. The silk liner has an ink marked R.VIII being the 8th Reserve Korps in the Coblenz region (Rhein). Helmet is is very good condition with some slight shrinkage to upper crown.

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Helmet for Garde Infanterie M.1895 with black horsehair parade plume. The guards regiments wore horsehair plumes for parades and special occasions. The first and second battalions of each regiment wore white plumes, the third (Füsilier-) Batallions wore black plumes. For all companies of Garde-Füsilier-Rgt,. black plumes were worn.

This example is from the third or Füsilier-Batallion (III.) of the Kaiser Alexander Garde-Grenadier-Regiment No.1, which was based in Berlin, Alexanderplatz, just behind the Berlin City Palace (Berliner Stadtschloss). The Czar of Russia had always been honorary commander of this regiment, which wore the monogram of Czar Alexander I. on their shoulder straps. The pickelhaube was only a secondary headdress of this regiment since 1894, when mitre-caps were introduced for parades. These were the original mitre caps of the First Foot Guards, which Czar Alexander had made a present to this Regiment in 1814.

The First Foot Guards (Potsdam) then received a new pattern of mitrecap by order of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1894.

This helmet has a regimental stamp inside the neckguard: K.A.R.

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Helmet dated 1915 with stamp Fs.A.R.4 for Magdeburgisches Fuss-Artillerie-Regiment No.4, based in Magdeburg, and part of the IV. Army Corps. There is also a makers mark of: Heinrich Timm in Magdeburg.
Almost mint conditon, apart from storage dirt and age, inside looks as though hardly worn. The chinstrap and cockades have been replaced, in this case a patent leather private purchase type chinstrap with gilded fittings, not quite fitting for an issue helmet, the Reichs cockade is an orginal, the Prussian is a repainted collectors copy. This item came to the West shortly after the fall of the iron curtain. The foot artillery regiments other ranks wore a leather chinstrap instead of the chinscales, parade plumes were not worn. Officers wore flat chinscales.

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Helmet for an officer of the Reserve of one of the Saxon Field Artillery Regiments. This helmet is of very light, thin construction, made about 1912-14 in the most elegant form. Due to the lightness of construction, the helmet body has suffered some damage and is slightly misshapen, but has been restored. The gilded fittings are in excellent condition with most original frosting to centre of emblem. The Saxon emblem has an underlying silver Reserve Cross over the gilded star. The Saxon Reserve Cross had no motto. The cockades are finely silvered and enameled. The chinscales are highly convex and of very thin gilded metal. Silk and leather liner is in good order, with only slight wear. The thin peaks are lined with a thin cotton material, green to the front, red to the rear. Purchased in London in the early 1980s. Saxony had following Field Artillery Regiments in peacetime: R.12, 28, 32, 48, 64, 68, 77 & 78

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Helmet for other ranks of Royal Saxon Grenadier-Regiment Kaiser Wilhelm No. 101, based in Dresden.

This example in good condition, only the tip of the spike is damaged. The helmet is a regular issue but without any regimental markings. The spike is removable, as this regiment wore black parade plumes, as did also Regiment 100. Original cockades of Saxon pattern (white with green ring), on replaced original flat chinscales M.91 The emblem is a gilded starburst with a white metal crowned Saxon emblem within a laurel wreath. Saxony held 15 infantry regiments in the peacetime period.

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Helmet ca. 1914/15 for Infantry of the Saxon Duchies (Thüringen). This pattern emblem and cockade, green with a white ring, was worn by troops from following states: Sachsen-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Sachsen-Meiningen. i.e., following regiments: 6. Thüringisches Infanterie-Regiment No.95 (Gotha, Hildburghausen and Meiningen) and 8. Thüringisches Infanterie-Regiment. 153 (Altenburg)
The helmet bears the Prussian Line Eagle with Fürst motto, with a white metal star and crowned Saxon emblem. This example is not regimentaly marked, but has a date stamp of 1915 and a hardly legible makers mark from Zeitz, which is in this region. This example is in mint condition, seems hardly worn.

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Helmet M.1896 for Bavarian infantry regiiments. Bavaria held in all, 24 infantry regiments in peacetime, The Leib-Infanterie-Regiment and 23 line regiments. All 23 regiments wore the standard helmet as shown. The helmet for the Leib-Regiiment had all white metal fittings and white metal chinscales. The example shown is in almost mint condition with only very light wear. Both original cockades and chinstrap. The Bavarian cockade is of matt silvered iron with a blue ring. The finely gilded emblem is the Bavarian greater coat of arms, flanked by two crowned lions. None of the Bavarian infantry regiments wore a horsehair plume, not even the Leib-Regiment, apart from the regimental commander and Offiziere à la Suite. The helmet shown has a datestamp of 1912 and the neckguard has a stamp of 21.J.R., i.e.,

Königlich Bayerisches 21. Infanterie-Regiment Grossherzog Friedrich Franz von Mecklenburg

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg was honorary chief of this regiment. Bavaria had its own separate army and war ministry until 1916. Its regiments had a separate numbering to those of the Prussian and contingent armies. It also had uniform styles and regulations, which greatly differed from those of the Prussian Army. The Bavarian Army had three Army Corps in peacetime, I,. II. and III. A.K. The 1896 pattern helmet, similar to the Prussian, replaced the old Bavarian helmet of 1886, which had a fluted spike on a crossbase and a square peak, rather like a dragoon helmet.

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A helmet of Bavarian 6th Chevaulegers-Regiment Prinz Albrecht von Preussen. This helmet has all the aspects of a classical Bavarian helmet. The style is reminiscent of the Prussian Dragoons. The helmet has a higher crown, a square peak, a fluted spike on a crossbase with perlring, a large Bavarian emblem and chinscales on sideposts M.94. The cockades are the Reichs on the right side, the Bavarian on the left. All fittings are in white metal, as for all the regiments with even numbers, in all, Bavaria possessed 8 Chevaulegers Regiments. Bavaria had no dragoon regiments. The word Chevaulegers is from the French, meaning light horse. Inside the crown are two issue dates, 1904 and 1906. The neckguard is stamped: 6.Ch.R.. The regiment was based in Bayreuth and belonged to the III. Bavarian Army Corps. A helmet of this type was also worn by The Infanterie-Leib-Regiment until 1896. The spike has been restored by a jeweller many years ago.

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